According to the indictment, former Ridge Spring mayor Jimmy Gillian and the town's former public works director, Andrew Bodie, conspired to bury asbestos tile from a former elementary school building in town.
They are further accused of burying asbestos on a separate piece of town property.
The Department of Health and Environment Control began investigating the incidents between June 1, 2004 and January 1, 2005. They say the incidents occurred without permits being obtained.
That led to a 13-count indictment, which was signed by South Carolina attorney general Henry McMaster this month.
The indictment includes conspiracy and criminal conspiracy to violate the Pollution Control Act.
The former mayor is also charged with misconduct while in office.